What is an Automobile | Introduction about Automobile

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automobile - Automotive

What is an Automobile?

An automobile is derived from the Ancient Greek word ‘autos’ meaning self and ‘Mobilis’ meaning movable.

Automobile:-autos +mobilis

Automobile is the vehicle which is not powered by human but rather controlled by a human.

Automobile has huge varieties of the vehicle for example:- Cars, Buses, Trucks, Bikes, etc.

The Automobile was invented by Karl Benz in 1885. But this was a three-wheeled vehicle patented under the name ‘Benz Patent-Motorwagen’.

And at the same time, another inventors ‘Gattieb Daimler’ and ‘Wilhelm Maybach’ from Germany got their patent filed for a motorcycle.

But the first vehicle available for people was Model-T Ford made Henry ford in 1908.

Then It was the first mass-production automobile.

On the other hand, if we talk about the automobile that what is the need for an automobile, the basic need is to make the traveling distance shorter.

And according to that automobile was actually invented during the ancient civilization when the human-invented wheel and start using for traveling by animals.

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Classification of Automobile

1-According to the purpose

Passenger Vehicle:-Cars, Bus, Taxi, etc.

Passenger vehicles:- passenger vehicles are used for traveling for a huge number of the passenger in a single time.

These vehicles are of different categories according to the no. of passengers for e.g;

Minibus having a seating capacity of 25 to 30 passengers medium-size buses having the seating capacity of 45 to 50 passengers than the third category is double-decker buses in which the seating capacity varies from 80 to 90.

One more popular type of automobile is city bus it is also a passenger traveling medium but in this type of buses the no of seats are less but have more space for standing in the bus this type of vehicles are used for shorter distance only examples:- state transport buses, city buses, etc.

Nowadays taxi is also a popular category for a passenger traveling transport medium because it provides a quick and comfortable transport option compares to other

Goods Vehicle:-Trucks, Tempos, Containers, etc.

From so many years transportation of goods is a big challenge for automobile:- there is so many options are available for the transportation of goods which depends on the number of goods.

The vehicle used for the transportation of goods are trucks, tempos containers and load carriers, trucks are used for the heavyweight load transportation like 10 to 15 tonne so as small vehicles are used for the small load carriers.

Nowadays the huge revolution is already introduced by automobile industries is that shifting the goods vehicle towards e – vehicles

Special Purpose Vehicle:-Ambulance, Fire brigade, etc

special purpose vehicles are that vehicle which are used for some special purpose and which are equipped by some special equipment and tools for example:- ambulance, fire brigade, crane

2- According to Load carrying capacity

Light motor vehicle (LMV):-Cars, Jeeps, etc.

Light motor vehicles are those vehicles which generally made to do work of less capacity like to carry 2 to 4 Passengers, or maybe 5 at some time, including the driver. For Example:- Cars like Alto, Swift, Baleno, jeeps, etc.

Maruti suzuki ignis - 2020
Maruti suzuki ignis – 2020

Medium Motor vehicle (MMV):- Minibus, Tempos etc.

Medium motor vehicles are generally used to carry the passengers plus goods but up to a certain payload that is around 5ookg-1500kg.

If we talking about minibus it has the capacity of carrying around 23 passengers. Such as Mahindra pickup trucks, and minibusses.

Heavy motor vehicle (HMV):-Trucks, Tractors, etc.

Speaking about Heavy motor vehicles, these vehicles are used to transport heavy goods.

A heavy vehicle has a gross vehicle mass(GVM) or Aggregate mass(ATM) of more than 4.5 tonnes.

Types of heavy motor vehicle

Light rigid vehicle – LR

This vehicle has a gross vehicle mass of more than 4.5 tonnes and up to eight tonnes.

Medium rigid vehicle -MR

This vehicle has two axles and a gross vehicle mass of more than eight tonnes.

Heavy rigid vehicle – HR

This vehicle has three or more axles and a gross vehicle mass of more than eight tonnes.

3- According to the number of wheels

Two-wheeler:-Motorcycle, scooter, etc.

Two-wheeler vehicles such as Bicycle, Motorbike, scooter, are come into this category.

TVS-Apache-RR310-Wallpaper-2
TVS-Apache-RR310-Wallpaper-2

Firstly, the bicycle:- it is a human-powered vehicle. Which is driven by pedals by a human, which connected to the rear tire by a chain mechanism.

It is the best way to travel to shorter distances. People also used it as an exercise in his daily routine.

Three-wheeler:-Autoriksha etc.

Three-wheeler vehicles are generally used as public transport. People in cities are generally used in this mode of transport.

Because it is cheap and easily available, people don’t have to wait too much. But it is used to go to a shorter distance around 10-30 km.

Four-wheeler:-Cars, Jeeps, etc.

The main and most usable vehicle is a four-wheel vehicle. People love this type of vehicle, In lakhs, this type of vehicles are sold in a year.

What is an Automobile | Introduction about Automobile

The major manufacturing company of four-wheel vehicles in India are Maruti Suzuki, Hyundai, Honda, Kia Motors, TATA and many more.

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Jaguar XE Front
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4- According to fuel used

Petrol vehicle:-

The vehicles run on Petrol(gasoline) engines are highly used in the automotive sector.

All the Two-wheel vehicle comes with a petrol engine. And maximum car variants come with a petrol engine. It is a highly flammable fuel.

A petrol engine used a charge, which is the mixing of an Air-fuel mixture for propagating aflame with the help of a spark plug, which then used to produce pressure inside the combustion chamber which starts the cycle and runs the engine.

For example-TVS Jupiter, Maruti Suzuki Alto.

Diesel vehicle:-

These vehicles are runs on Diesel fuel, in diesel engines.

The diesel engines have a high compression ratio, therefore, there is no need for sparkplugs in this kind of engines.

The propagation of flame is done by injecting vaporized diesel in the high compressive air inside the combustion chamber, which starts the cycle and engine runs.

For example:- KIA Seltos HTE Diesel, Trucks and Buses.

Electric vehicle:-

With new technology Electric vehicles come in the Indian market.

ALL the Companies are now transferred from petrol/diesel to Electric vehicles in 2030.

The power source in this type of vehicle is an electric motor which basically runs on lithium-ion batteries.

In India, Hyundai sells its first electric vehicle that is Hyundai KONA, which ranges 452km in a single charge.

Hyundai Kona Electric
India’s first electric car

Hybrid vehicle:-

A hybrid electric vehicle is a type of hybrid vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine system with an electric propulsion system.

This increase the power and efficiency of the vehicle.

For example;- MG Hector 1.5L sharp HYbrid.

5- According to the wheel drive

Front-wheel drive:-

Front-wheel drive is those vehicles, in which power from the engine is directly given to the front wheels of the vehicle.

In this type of vehicle, the engine is placed generally on the front side of the vehicle, and powered transfer from engine to front wheels with the help of a transfer case.

For Example- Swift, Baleno, Ciaz., Mercedes c-class

front wheel drive vehicle
front wheel drive vehicle

Rear-wheel Drive:-

Rear-wheel drive is those vehicles which, in which power from the engine is given to the rear wheels of the vehicle.

Mainly the is placed at the front and with help of propeller shaft power is transfer to the rear wheels.

For Example:- Mahindra Bolero, THAR

2020 Mahindra Bolero
2020 Mahindra Bolero

Four-wheel drive:-

Four-wheel drive are those vehicles in which power is given to all wheels of the vehicle.

For example;- THAR 4*4

6- According to the suspension system

  • Conventional type
  • Independent type

Basic of Internal combustion engine

Classifications of cars:-

Hatchback

-The Hatchback is basically Front Wheel Drive cars. The Cubic Capacity of Hatchback is Lie under the range of 1400 cc. For example-Maruti Suzuki Swift VXI

LenghtWidthHeightCC
3840mm1735mm1530mm1197cc
WheelbaseBoot spaceGVWSeating capacity
2450mm268L11315Kg 5
Hatchback cars

Sedan (US)/ Saloon(UK)-

These cars have larger Wheel Base as compared to the Hatchback and A typical boot space

For example-Maruti Suzuki Ciaz Sigma

LengthWidthHeightCC
4490mm1730mm1485mm1462cc
WheelbaseBoot spaceGVWSeating capacity
2650mm510L1520KG 5
Sedan cars

MPV (Multi-purpose-vehicle) / MUV(Multi-utility vehicle)

This type of vehicle is generally known as people carriers.

These vehicles are generally designed in this way to give a comfortable ride to the passengers.

For example-Datsun Go plus D petrol

LengthWidthHeightCC
3995mm1636mm1507mm1198cc
WheelbaseBoot spaceKerb weightSeating capacity
2450mm347L865KG 7

SUV – (Sport utility vehicle)

An SUV is a big car built on a body-on-frame chassis, these cars have increased ground clearance, Generally used for the off-roading.

These cars give you both the Features of off-roaders and soft-roaders.

For example- Land Rover Discovery Sport 2.0L Diesel

LengthWidthHeightCC
4600mm2173mm1690mm1999cc
WheelbaseBoot spaceGVWSeating capacity
2741mm981L2505KG 5

Crossover

A simple definition of a crossover would be that it is a vehicle that combines both the feature of an SUV and a Hatchback.

For example-VOLVO S60 Cross country

LengthWidthHeightCC
4637mm1866mm1539mm2400cc
WheelbaseBoot spaceGVWSeating capacity
2774mm380L2230KG 5
Cross over cars

Coupe

A coupe is generally a sports car with a seating capacity of 2/4 with a fixed roof(means it is not convertible).

For example-Ford Mustang

LengthWidthHeightCC
4784mm2080mm1391mm4951cc
WheelbaseBoot spaceKerb weightSeating capacity
2720mm383L1770KG 4
Coupe Cars

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Six wheelers:-

This type of vehicle are used to carry the heavy load and having the capacity of carrying more than 20 persons.

For example –TRUCKS and BUSES.

Components of automobile

  1. Basic structure
  2. Power plant
  3. Transmission system
  4. Auxiliaries
  5. Controls

Basic structure:-It consists of Frame, suspension system, axles, wheels, and tires.

Frame: – A frame is the main structure of the vehicle to which all the other components like the suspension system, braking system, steering system, axles, and body structure connected.

Chassis:- Vehicle without the body, known as the chassis of the vehicle.

Suspension system:-It is used to prevent the vehicle components from the shocks when the vehicle is running and provide a comfortable ride to the passengers.

Axles:-It is a rod or spindle which is passing through the center of the wheel.

Wheels: – Wheels are the round-shaped rim on which tire is mounted.

Power plant:- It provides power to the whole system that why it is also called as the heart of the vehicle.

However, It consists of an internal combustion engine which includes spark ignition (SI) engine or compression ignition (CI) engine.

Transmission system:-The transmission system consists of a clutch, gearbox, propeller shaft, driveshaft, differential, etc.

So the function of a transmission system is to transmit the power from the engine to the wheels of the vehicle.

Auxiliaries:-It is common in all type of vehicles.

It includes Battery, Starter motor, Headlights, Sidelights, Brake lights, Horn, Number plate, and Indicators, etc.

Controls:-It consists of the Steering system and brake system. Through the steering system, we can give direction to the vehicle.

So if we want to take a turn we can take a turn with the help of the steering system while the brake system helps to control the vehicle or stop the vehicle at a particular distance.

These are some details of Automobile, for more information about Indian cars and Bikes subscribe to our website or follow us on Instagram. if any Query comment us or mail us at revjust21@gmail.com


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