Braking system in Automobile
INTRODUCTION TO BRAKING SYSTEM.
BRAKES are one of the most important control components of the vehicle. This is the main factor which helps to control the vehicles. The braking system in automobile Helps to stop the vehicle at a particular distance.
With the Improvement of the Braking system, we are able to increase the speed of modern cars on the road.
The braking system used most frequently operates hydraulically, by pressure applied through a liquid.
These are mainly used to slow or stop the car and it is operated by the foot of the person and is known as service brakes.
And there is one more braking which used to park the car know as a parking-brakes system, which is mechanically operated by a separate foot or a hand lever.
In heavy vehicles like truck and buses, the braking system is operated pneumatically, means by air pressure.
All the Braking system in Automobile depend upon the friction between the moving parts and the stationary parts
DIFFERENT TYPE OF Braking system in Automobile
There are different types of braking system used in Automobile
This type of braking system used in those cases where the small amount of force is needed, like scooters, bikes and in some cars like Maruti Suzuki 800. The operating system of this braking system is totally mechanical. In some cases, wires are used or in some cases, the mechanical linkage is made.
This is the most reliable and useful braking system. The brake force is applied by the hydraulic pressure.
The working principle of the hydraulic braking system is purely based upon Pascal’s law, which states that the intensity of pressure exerted inside a closed system by the liquid is always equal in all the directions.
Power brakes are mainly used in Heavy utility vehicles. It uses a combination of mechanical components to multiply the force applied to the brake pedal by the driver into enough force to actuate the brakes and stop a vehicle that can weigh several tons.
Following are the types of the braking system that comes under the power brakes:-
a. air brakes
b. air-hydraulic brakes
c. vacuum brakes
d. electric brakes
WHY BRAKES ARE NECESSARY for AUTOMOBILE
If we release the pressure from the accelerator pedal, the vehicle tends to stop or slow down just because of Air drag/wind resistance, a drag of engine and road friction, but due to the motion of the vehicle, it will stop by covering a certain distance. But in the present-day traffic.
This would be dangerous so we need a solution to this problem. That’s why the braking system put in use.
The braking system provides an added friction to overcome motion and slow up or stop the vehicle at a particular distance.
The momentum or the kinetic energy developed by the vehicle, when it is in motion is converted to heat energy by the friction of brake shoes and brake drums which is dissipated into the surrounding air.
FUNCTION OF BRAKES
- To stop the vehicle in the shortest possible distance and time.
- Help in controlling the vehicle.
- To reduce the speed at turnings and other crowded places.
- Hold the vehicle in its stationary position.
The stopping distance of a vehicle depends upon the various factors some are as follow:-
- The Grip between the tyre and road surface.
- Nature of road surface
- Quality of the tyre
- Tyre tread condition
- Tyre inflation.
Calculations of Stopping Distance of vehicle
d=stopping distance in kilometers.
K=Constant depending upon the road and tyre inflation.
V=velocity of the vehicle per hour.